Chateau Gaillard, Les Andelys, France

Photograph by David L. Arnold

A symbol of long-ago battles, Chateau Gaillard lies in ruins near the town of Les Andelys, France. It was built by Richard the Lion-Hearted—King of England and Duke of Normandy—as a strategic redoubt against the king of France. In 1204 French soldiers storming the castle broke England's grip on Normandy.

(Photo shot on assignment for "The Civilizing Seine," April 1982, National Geographic magazine)